The official name of autism in English is Autistic Spectrum Disorder. Autistic Spectrum Disorder is a term that is more accurate, as autism is not simply a one-dimensional developmental disorder.


The Diagnostic Manual of the American Psychiatric Association reports the following symptoms as characteristics of the disorder:

1. Difficulty with social skills that occur in the form of at least two of the followingsymptoms: 
• Difficulty in using and understanding of non-verbal signals, such as meeting and monitoring eye gaze, or reading emotions based on facial expressions 
•Difficulty in developing relationships with peers 
•Lack of interest in social interaction 
• Lack of empathy

2. Issue with communication skills, manifested in the form of at least one of the followingsymptoms: 
• Delayed growth or lack of speech, which is not offset by the child's attempt to communicate in other ways. 
•Lack of skills to start or maintain a conversation. 
•Use of stereotyped and repetitive language

• Lack of use of symbolic language


3. Limited, stereotypical and repetitive patterns of behavior or interest that occur with at least one of the following symptoms: 
• Unreasonable obsession with the repetition of behavior either over long periods of time or for smaller ones but with particularintensity. 
•Demonstration of ritual behavior or association of a person with repetitive behaviour. 
•Accidental repetitive movements of the limbs or the head. 
• Persistence on specific features of the objects around them (ex. colors or shapes).


The symptoms of autism can appear for the first time before the age of 3, but there are a few cases where parents are unable to recognize them in time and do not ask for the help of a specialist. But even if autism is treated from a very young age, this does not mean that it is always possible to deal with it. Autism is a disorder that is largely based on genetic and perinatal factors, so its margins of treatment are extremely narrow and any treatment processes focus on learning competencies so that individuals and their environment learn to live with the disorder and its limitations.

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